March 16, 2011 Leave a comment
Linda Darling-Hammond’s article on teacher preparation in this week’s EdWeek should be required reading for anyone interested in education policy. The article was written in recognition of Teach for America’s 20th anniversary.
Yes, my vision is that in 10 years, the United States, like other high-achieving nations, will recruit top teaching candidates, prepare them well in state-of-the-art training programs (free of charge), and support them for career-long success in high-quality schools. Today, by contrast, teachers go into debt to enter a career that pays noticeably less than their alternatives—especially if they work in high-poverty schools— and reach the profession through a smorgasbord of training options, from excellent to awful, often followed by little mentoring or help. As a result, while some teachers are well prepared, many students in needy schools experience a revolving door of inexperienced and underprepared teachers.
Darling-Hammond is probably best-known for her criticism of Teach for America’s crash-course, full-steam-ahead approach to teacher preparation. She goes on to criticize the cost/benefit ratio of the program .
Where some studies have shown better outcomes for TFA teachers—generally in high school, in mathematics, and in comparison with less prepared teachers in the same high-need schools—others have found that students of new TFA teachers do less well than those of fully prepared beginners, especially in elementary grades, in fields such as reading, and with Latino students and English-language learners.
The small number of TFA-ers who stay in teaching (fewer than 20 percent by year four, according to state and district data) do become as effective as other fully credentialed teachers and, often, more effective in teaching mathematics. However, this small yield comes at substantial cost to the public for recruitment, training, and replacement. A recent estimate places recurring costs at more than $70,000 per recruit, enough to have trained numerous effective career teachers.
She doesn’t provide a source for the last figure, unfortunately, and it’s not clear what exactly is being included in the recurring cost per TFA recruit. Even disregarding that, it is still true that TFA teachers are more expensive than traditionally-certified teachers, not obviously more effective, and they leave the profession in higher numbers.
Darling-Hammond is not anti-TFA. She just believes that it (and the rest of public education) would better serve their students if they focused more on quality teacher preparation, preparation that sets the stage for a lifelong career of successful teaching, not just a two-year commitment.
TFA teachers are committed, work hard, and want to do a good job. Many want to stay in the profession, but feel their lack of strong preparation makes it difficult to do so. For these reasons, alumni like Megan Hopkins have proposed that TFA evolve into a teacher-residency model that would offer recruits a full year of training under the wing of an expert urban teacher while completing tightly connected coursework for certification. Such teacher residencies, operating as partnerships with universities in cities like Chicago, Boston, and Denver, have produced strong urban teachers who stay in the profession at rates of more than 80 percent, as have many universities that have developed new models of recruitment and training.
On the occasion of its 20th anniversary, we should be building on what works for TFA and marrying it to what works for dozens of strong preparation programs to produce the highly qualified, effective teachers we need for every community in the 21st century.